Nigeria

Nigeria

Location:
Western Africa,
 Land boundaries:
Total: 4,477 km
Border countries (4): 
Benin 809 km,
Cameroon 1,975 km,
Chad 85 km,
Niger 1,608 km
Coastline:
853 km
  Area:
total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
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NIGERIA

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Climate:
Equatorial in the south,
Tropical in the center,
Arid in north
Terrain:
Southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; Mountains in the southeast, plains in north
Elevation:
Mean elevation: 380 m
Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources:
Natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use:
Agricultural land: 78%
Arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%
Forest: 9.5%
Other: 12.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
2,930 sq km (2012)
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People and Society

There are an estimated 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria. Each inhabits a territory that it considers to be its own by right of first occupancy and inheritance. Individuals who are not members of a dominant group but who have lived and worked for several decades in the territory of the group are still considered to be aliens. In most rural areas, such aliens may not acquire outright title to land, yet considerable numbers of people have migrated from one ethnic territory to another in search of farmland. There are three major ethnic groups in the country: the HausaFulani, the Yoruba, and the Igbo.

Population:
190,632,261
Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.
Nationality:
Nigerian(s)
Ethnic groups:
Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Languages:
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
Religions:
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.
Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers.
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Education

Nigeria’s adult literacy rate was 69.1 percent on average, with a higher rate for men (78.2 percent) than for women (60.1 percent). Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are underserved. The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four years of university education leading to a bachelor’s degree. 59 percent of girls and 68 percent of boys were enrolled in primary school. However, only 23 percent of girls and 28 percent of boys were enrolled in secondary school.

Although federal and state governments have the major responsibility for education, other organizations, such as local governments and religious groups, may establish and administer primary and secondary schools. Most secondary schools, trade centers, technical institutes, teacher-training colleges, and colleges of education and of technology are controlled by the state governments.

Nigeria has more than 130 universities and colleges widely dispersed throughout the country in an attempt to make higher education easily accessible. Many of the universities are federally controlled, and the language of instruction is English at all the universities and colleges. At the time of Nigeria’s independence in 1960, there were only two established postsecondary institutions, both of which were located in the southwestern part of the country: University College at Ibadan (founded in 1948, now the University of Ibadan) and Yaba Higher College (founded in 1934, now Yaba College of Technology). Four more government-operated universities were established in the 1960s: University of Nigeria, Nsukka (1960), in the east; University of Ife (founded in 1961, now Obafemi Awolowo University) in the west; University of Northern Nigeria (founded in 1962, now Ahmadu Bello University) in the north; and University of Lagos (1962) in the south.

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Economy

Nigeria is one of Sub Saharan Africa’s largest economies and relies heavily on oil as its main source of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues. Following the 2008-09 global financial crises, the banking sector was effectively recapitalized and regulation enhanced. Since then, Nigeria’s economic growth has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. Economic diversification and strong growth have not translated into a significant decline in poverty levels.
Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by an inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria’s oil production had been contracting every year since 2012 until a slight rebound in 2017.
Nigeria’s economy is struggling to leverage the country’s vast wealth in fossil fuels in order to displace the crushing poverty that affects about 57 percent of its population. Economists refer to the coexistence of vast natural resources wealth and extreme personal poverty in developing countries like Nigeria as the “paradox of plenty” or the “curse of oil.” Nigeria’s exports of oil and natural gas—at a time of peak prices—have enabled the country to post merchandise trade and current account surpluses in recent years. Reportedly, 80 percent of
Nigeria’s energy revenues flow to the government, 16 percent cover operational costs, and the remaining 4 percent go to investors. However, the World Bank has estimated that, as a result of corruption, 80 percent of energy revenues benefit only 1 percent of the population. Following a milestone agreement with the Paris Club of lending nations in 2005 and a similar agreement with the London Club of lending nations in 2006, Nigeria succeeded in eliminating almost all of its external debt. The agreements consisted of a combination of debt forgiveness and repayment from the country’s energy revenues. Outside of the energy sector, Nigeria’s economy is highly inefficient. Moreover, human capital is underdeveloped—Nigeria ranked 158 out of 177 countries in the United Nations Development Index in 2005—and non-energy-related infrastructure is inadequate.
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GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.118 trillion (2017 est.)
$1.109 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.127 trillion (2015 est.)
 GDP (official exchange rate):
$394.8 billion (2017 est.)
GDP – real growth rate:
0.8% (2017 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP):
$5,900 (2017 est.)
Gross national saving:
14.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 21.6%
industry: 18.3%
services: 60.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture – products:
cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Industries:
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Labor force:
60.08 million (2017 est.)
Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
13.4% (2017 est.)
13.4% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line:
70% (2010 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $13.97 billion
expenditures: $22.15 billion (2017 est.)
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Agriculture

The agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector constitutes about 17.6 percent of the gross domestic product but employs up to 70 percent of the workforce. Agricultural products include cassava (tapioca), cocoa, corn, millet, palm oil, peanuts, rice, rubber, sorghum, and yams. Livestock products include cattle, chickens, goats, pigs, and sheep.  Although overall agricultural production rose by 28 percent during the 1990s, per capita output rose by only 8.5 percent during the same decade.

Agriculture has failed to keep pace with Nigeria’s rapid population growth, so that the country, which once exported food, now relies on imports to sustain itself. About two-thirds of all Nigerians obtain a living from agricultural production. Most are small-scale subsistence farmers who produce only a little surplus for sale and who derive additional income from one or more cash crops and from the sale of local crafts. Farms are small, usually less than 2.5 acres (1 hectare) in the south and about 7.5 acres (3 hectares) in the open grassland areas of the north. Because the soil is not totally amenable to mechanized equipment, the hoe and matchet (machete) continue to be the dominant farm implements. The shortage of farmland in some localities and limited access to land in others are among the factors that restrict the size of farmland cultivated per family. Environmental deterioration, inferior storage facilities, a poor transport system, and a lack of investment capital contribute to low productivity and the general stagnation in agriculture.

population without electricity: 
95,500,000
Electrification – total population: 45%
Electrification – urban areas: 55%
Electrification – rural areas: 37%(2013)
Electricity – production:
29.83 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity – consumption:
24.57 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Crude oil – production:
1.871 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Crude oil – exports:
2.279 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Crude oil – proved reserves:
37.06 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas – proved reserves:
5.284 trillion cubic meters
Telephones – fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 154,513
Telephones – mobile cellular:
total: 154,342,168

Manufacturing

Industry accounts for 53.1 percent of Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP), much of which is attributable to the lucrative energy sector, and it employs about 10 percent of the labor force. The oil and gas sector accounts for 95 to 99 percent of Nigeria’s export revenues. Manufacturing’s share of export revenues is estimated at 1 percent. By contrast, in 2005 manufactured goods constituted the largest category of imports. In 2006 the capacity utilization rate of the industry stood at 53.3 percent, a relatively low rate that policymakers hoped to increase by reversing capital flight and removing impediments to private-sector activity.

Revenue from mining has enabled the federal government to establish such capital-intensive industries as the Ajaokuta and Aladja steel mills, pulp and paper mills at Oku Iboku and Iwopin, petrochemical plants at Kaduna, Abuja, and Port Harcourt, and an aluminum smelter at Ikot Abasi. In the past, large-scale manufacturing—dominated by the production of textiles, tobacco, beverages, and cement—was controlled by foreign investors. The government’s indigenization efforts have altered the ownership situation, although the management and effective control of most large factories have remained in the hands of expatriate representatives of multinational corporations.

Energy

A member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Nigeria has proven oil reserves of 36.2 billion barrels, the tenth largest reserves in the world. Most of the reserves are located in the Niger River Delta. In 2006 Nigeria produced 2.4 million barrels per day of oil, approximately 2.1 million of which were exported. Nigeria ranks as the world’s eighth largest exporter of oil and the United States’ fifth largest source of imported oil.

Resource extraction is the most important and the fastest-growing sector of the economy, reflecting the rise to prominence of crude oil output. Nigeria has been a member of OPEC since 1971. There are oil refineries at Port HarcourtWarri, and Kaduna. The petroleum industry remains dominant, and crude petroleum continues to account for virtually all export earnings. The most economically valuable minerals are crude oil, natural gas, coal, tin, and columbite (an iron-bearing mineral that accompanies tin). Petroleum, first discovered in 1956, is the most important source of government revenue and foreign exchange—its share of the gross domestic product rose from virtually nothing in the 1950s to about two-fifths in the late 1990s. Most of the oil output comes from onshore fields in the Niger Delta, although an increasing proportion of the crude is produced at offshore locations. There are vast reserves of natural gas, but most of the gas produced is a by-product of crude oil; in the past, this was burned off, as there was no market for it, but efforts have been made to utilize more of this commodity.

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In 2005 Nigeria received more than 2.7 million tourists. The largest contingents came from Niger (620,658), Benin (393,215), Liberia (107,401), and Cameroon (107,108). In 2004 tourism receipts totaled US$49 million. The Nigerian government encourages its citizens to visit tourism destinations within the country through various financial incentives. Concerns exist regarding the quality of amenities and personal safety.

Services

Services accounted for an estimated 29.3 percent of the gross domestic product and employed roughly one in five workers in 2006. The most important branch of the services sector is banking and finance. Nigeria has many attractions of interest to tourists. There are miles of coastal beaches, wildlife reserves, a variety of cultures, and many museums that house artistic treasures. However, the many decades Nigeria spent under military rule created a repressive environment not well suited to the tourist. Since the installation of the democratically elected government in 1999, the country has faced periods of ethnic violence, also not conducive to attracting a tourist clientele. Nevertheless, more than two million people visited the country annually in the early 2000s.

Banking and Finance

In 2006 Nigeria’s banking sector successfully completed a consolidation program under the supervision of the Central Bank of Nigeria, which has regulatory authority over the entire financial sector. From a total of 89 banks, many of them marginal, 25 relatively well-capitalized deposit banks have emerged. Even before the consolidation, loan assets and deposit liabilities were highly concentrated. In addition to deposit banks, Nigeria has hundreds of community banks and a small number of specialized development and mortgage banks. A similar consolidation is planned for the insurance sector. In 2007 Nigerian banks such as intercontinental Bank and Guaranty Trust were the beneficiaries of significant foreign investment. Contrary to modern practice, many financial transactions in Nigeria are conducted in cash rather than with bank letters of credit.

Tourism

Uganda is the place, where the safari holiday takes place floating down the crocodile-flanked Nile, fishing on Lake Victoria, wandering among the elephant herds of Queen Elizabeth National Park or listening to the roar of mighty Murchison Falls.

UGANDA, “THE PEARL OF AFRICA” As a tourism destination, Uganda is blessed with natural advantages. Located at the heart of Africa, the country is rich in wildlife, nature, culture, heritage, and history. Its biological and cultural diversity is unmatched for a country the size of Great Britain or the US state of Oregon.

Eleven percent of all birds in the world can be found in Uganda. In fact, Uganda has more species of birds per square kilometer than anywhere else in the world. It is a bird’s haven for bird enthusiasts. Uganda is the home of the world’s largest population of gorillas and other primates as well as a range of other wildlife including the Big Five, reptiles and over 1,000 species of birds (50 percent of Africa’s birds and butterfly species).

With almost 40 percent of its land mass is covered by water, rivers, and wetlands, it is little wonder that Uganda is home to the source of the Nile, the world’s longest river. Temperatures all year round average 25-30c. And for those who like to socialize, this is the land of some of the friendliest people anywhere. Kampala is known for it entertainment earning it the title entertainment capital of East Africa.

What Uganda lacks in volume (it’s about the same size as Oregon or Cambodia) it more than makes up with variety, an incredible array of landscapes that range from the snowcapped Mountains of the Moon and the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest to the semi-desert northeast and water-spangled lake district.

Major Attraction

With more than 1.6 million people, Kampala is one of the fastest growing cities on the continent.

Nearby Entebbe, set on a peninsula stretching into Lake Victoria, is about as laid back as it gets in Africa.

Queen Elizabeth National Park nurtures healthy populations of elephant, lion, hippo and other large mammals, and is a major stop on the migratory bird route up the Great Rift Valley.

Home to 13 different primate species, Kibale National Park is one of the best places in Africa to see chimpanzees in the wild.
Murchison Falls National Park is flush with hippo, crocodile and other animals that live in or near the water.
The holy grail of Uganda wildlife watching is Bwindi Forest, where roughly half of the world’s mountain gorillas reside.

 

History