The Construction of the Pyramids
We are now in 2560 BC. First of all we must identify the construction site. They examine the Giza plateau. Then, they measure the amount of clay-limestone. Depending on the volume of the limestone, they determined the size of the pyramid.
Here in Giza, there is white and dark clay-limestone. The plan is to make a pyramid with dark limestone for the interior filling and with white limestone for the exterior. Above the present hill, there was soft clay-limestone about 11 meters thick. Which made a hill 30 meters high at the time. Here is how high the soft limestone reached at the time. 11 m of clayey limestone represents approximately 7 to 8 million cubic meters. Which is more than enough to build 3 pyramids with mastabas all around. The volume of the Great Pyramid is only 2.6 million cubic meters. That’s what it represented seen from the side, it is almost imperceptible from a distance. At the location of the tunnels and the underground chamber, there was a cavity of about 30m.
The place is chosen: it will be the Giza plateau. Before starting the pyramid The Egyptians established a model. Here are some examples of models: A miniature limestone model of the underground apartments of the Pyramid of Hawara. The construction of this monument absolutely required a carefully prepared preliminary plan. The architecture of the Pyramid was determined based in a very precise and very detailed way. Everything has been thought of from the start and will be carried out and scrupulously respected. To build a pyramid you have to choose the shape of the triangle.
The question is: which triangle?
Equilateral, right angle, isosceles triangle…
There is a choice of 230,000 triangles and 110 million possibilities to make a pyramid !!
But the Egyptians will choose only 1, the only one, the perfect one. According to their sacred principles, they will lay a base which will be 440 cubits. Then they divided the base by PI or 140 cubits. That multiply by 2 equals 280 Cubits. The result of the Height of the Pyramid. And the apothem divided by half base equals 1.618.
The Egyptians absolutely wanted to integrate the constant PI and the Golden Ratio. The pyramid became sacred since it was built with the cubit 52.36, the royal constant, and the meter. Four universal constants will be linked together in this building. There was no such thing as chance. 50 cm more or less, and the PI disappeared from the Pyramid. Egyptologists would have been relieved “phew There is no IP“.
But no! The Egyptians are not going to be wrong. They will indeed build a pyramid 280 cubits high and 440 cubits wide.
The pyramid is exceptionally accurate, to within 1 centimeter, which shows the PI value very precisely. The great pyramid is the largest manmade expression of PI and GOLD ratio visible on earth. Khufu’s son Khafre choose another concept for his pyramid, that of the sacred triangle 3-4-5, in symmetry, the Pythagorean triangle. By the way, it seems that Pythagoras never existed. Here is the plan as it was drawn at the time. The large cavity was fitted out with limestone concrete to make it the underground chamber.
From the ground level to the underground chamber, the height will be 56 cubits. From the floor to the Middle Chamber, the height will also be 56 cubits. Then each space will be cut in half and quarter. The angle of the descending and ascending corridors is the diagonal of the 2 squares. From the underground chamber to the intersection there are 161 cubits. From the intersection to the ascending corridor, made with the same formwork, there will be 161 cubits as well. The architect also included in the plan the 3 plugs that will close the entrance and a secret service shaft to exit. The middle chamber is in the middle and lined with white limestone. The King’s chamber is in Aswan red granite and it’s on 5 levels.
The 4 shafts, precise to the centimeter, target the sacred stars. The position of the Sun Re at noon on July 14, the day Sirius rises, determined the location of the King’s chamber. The Re and the King would be reunited in the chamber. The Egyptians divided the pyramid-like plots of fields. And according to their principles, they will integrate the sacred figures in their monument.
From the construction of the underground chamber until the end of the construction site, the Egyptians recorded precisely and meticulously measure the height. These readings of precise heights, row by row to the nearest centimeter served them throughout the construction.
Once the plan was completed and the dimensions decided, they calculated the volumes. It was necessary to determine if there was enough limestone on-site to complete the Great Pyramid and the monuments around. The Egyptians knew that such a pyramid required 2.6 million cubic meters of limestone. Before starting such a monument, they had to make sure there was enough material to finish it or end up with a truncated pyramid.
The Egyptians, therefore, knew how to calculate geometric volume long before the Rhind and Moscow papyrus dating back to minus 1600 BC. You cannot make concrete without having a precise volume and weight standard. Following careful site inspections, the volume had been calculated before the start of the work.
Heminiuou further perfected the pyramid by converting it into a concave Apothem. The drawing of the pyramid today is precisely the starting blueprint. Nothing, absolutely nothing was changed during construction. At the time of construction, the Nile floods arrived at the foot of the hill. Water was essential for the mixture and had to be close at hand. It is for this reason that all the pyramids were built by the river. Making concrete and grinding limestone required a lot of water, about 20% of the total volume. That is 500 thousand cubic meters!
How does one raise all this water up from below?
The Egyptians invented the screw pump or the so-called Archimedean screw. Some historians believe that this method was known in Babylon, 400 years before Archimedes. It was known thousands of years before by the Egyptians!
The Egyptians dug 3 passages, passages of about 10 meters wide, easy to dig in the soft limestone. In order to route the water and lead it to the other side, they also installed wooden viaducts in these passages. The ace cavity was then filled with lime concrete.
The Egyptians had known about the equinoxes for a long time. The date is April 13, 2560 BC, the time is 6:03 am. On the Vernal Equinox day, the sun will rise in a few minutes precisely in the east. A team is in place with sticks and ropes to be able to line up with the sun.
They await the first rays. The sun is rising. Three or four Egyptians quickly lay out the sticks and ropes. Five minutes later, the sun is moving but the first 4 sticks are aligned to the east. This configuration of 90 and 180 ° degrees is projected at the bottom of the cavity. The Egyptians had experienced this precision which they had used in the fields along the bank of the Nile for hundreds of years.
The edges of the cavity are transformed into a shallow basin, where the clayey limestone, natron, and lime will be mixed. Once the mixture is obtained, they opened the valves and let the concrete flow to the bottom of the cavity. Indeed, they filled these natural basins to then make the underground tunnels. Lime concrete once cured takes on the appearance of natural rocks. That’s why geologists haven’t noticed.
No trace of fire was found in the underground chamber. This explains why the concrete was made in outdoors. The Egyptians brought back natron salt, sodium carbonate, from Al-Natroum or from the surrounding area to make caustic soda. Lime was produced on-site by heating limestone 100 meters from the site.
It is July 14, 2561 BC, everything is ready. The Egyptians wait for the Nile to begin flooding. The site is divided into 4 teams. About a hundred workers wait near the screws to bring the water up. The other teams are waiting at the edge of the ponds to mix the materials and as many more are at the bottom of the cavity. Sirius rises, a few hours later the Nile overflows and reaches the foot of the hill. The workers begin to turn the screws pumps, the water rises and flows to the other side. They mix dark brown limestone with natron and lime.
A few moments later, they open the valves and the concrete pours out from the edge of the bowl. The workers have already measured and put in place the formwork at the bottom of the basin which will create the southern underground tunnel. The concrete just has to flow around it. They will use the same principle for the underground chamber: the formwork has been put in place and the concrete has been poured around and over it. The workers took less care for the walls of the underground chamber than for the top of the pyramid. This concrete contains much less water than that at the top of the pyramid.
When the formwork is removed quickly and has not had time to dry, it gives that of rough appearance. The Egyptians never dug underground wells below the pyramids, since it is impossible. They simply filled it in. May the archaeologist Mark Lehner Rest assured the workers did not suffer!
They worked in the open air and in good conditions. As was the case for the unfinished pyramid of Djedefre. The cavity was then filled with lime concrete. This explains the high precision of the south underground tunnel, of the service tunnel but also the sharpness of the edges of the tunnel in this photo by Edgar Wise in 1910. To validate this theory, it suffices to take a sample of the walls of the underground chamber and to do a chemical analysis.
The Egyptians used the same method to build the descending tunnel and the service shaft. They establish a formwork structure which can be seen in the figure: The diagonal of two squares which gives an angle of 26.57 ° which will also be used for the tunnel. This same formwork will be used 3-4 years later to make the ascending corridor and for the Grand Gallery. They continued the molds and construction of the well shaft simultaneously. The walls of the walls shaft will have supporting notches for the workers’ feet so they can descend and exit the pyramid when it is completed, 13 years later.
They thus arrive at the level of the cave known as the Grotto. At this level, they left a cavity and a block of granite to plug the service shaft behind them. The workers pour the first blocks of the pyramid. The volume of the cavity is estimated at approximately 450,000 cubic meters. Which is not a big deal compared to the 2.6 million cubic meters remaining!
The workers are now approaching the surface. A fourth passage will be opened to speed up the work. The work divided into two work sites. Some mix and others fill. In order to free up the space of the pyramid, the groud limestone transformed into concrete and poured into the center. The land beneath the platform of the pyramid is fully graded.
Filling the cavity took approximately 3 years based on calculated estimates. This technique of arranging natural cavities was used for all the pyramids. It is particularly evident in the pyramid of Meidum. Follow the lines!
The cavity was fitted out with formwork and limestone concrete. The walls, floor, and ceiling were made by pouring concrete. It’s easier to fill in than to dig and carve out a cave.
At the beginning, they form a dozen African lines. A team digs the soft limestone and a team mixes it up. The other workers line up in an African file to carry the baskets from hand to hand. Once the baskets are empty, they return them in the same way. 260 men are needed for each bucket brigade. A real conveyer belt. The organization is precise and meticulous. They poured the slab of the one cubit east pyramid with indentations to lay the cardinal stones. The floor is made of limestone and a lot of water. Adding water allows the ground to self-level perfectly. This explains the horizontal precision of the ground to within 21 mm. No need for extraterritorial technology!
From the tunnel, they trace the perimeter of the pyramid with ropes and sticks. At 220 cubits, in the middle of the future south face of the pyramid, they placed a stake of 4 cubits inwards. Workers realign themselves with respect to the new point in the center. The first segment of the Apothem perimeter is done. Then they line up 90 degrees with a wooden angle and do the same on the other side. Same for the other 2 sides. The perimeter of the future pyramid is then traced, precise to the millimeter, as an apothem. It is an 8-sided perimeter that is drawn on the ground with ropes. This will be the future shape of the pyramid. Once the pyramid is complete, at each equinox we will see the faces cut in half by the shadow.
The Equinoxes are visible to the naked eye for tens of km. It is at this stage that the architect Hémiounou decides to stop filling the center and continue with molded stones. From now on the construction is done with stones poured into the formwork molds. The formwork molds of the cornerstones are graduated with a slope of 51.50 °.
The hardest part of the job is in grinding the limestone and preparing the mixture to make the concrete. The first forms are in place. About 1200 workers mix limestone with natron and lime in the basins. They then line up to carry the baskets from hand to hand. The 4 cardinal stones of the exterior facing will be poured. The blocks of the 1st course will be 3 cubits high. Then, they continue towards the center, following the ropes and the picket meticulously. The 1st row of stones is poured. They leave the row open in different places. These are openings to let the lines of bucket carriers pass. It is estimated that 40 bucket brigades were necessary to transport the baskets one by one as well as all the materials.
By working 3 months per year, 8 hours per day and with 15 kg baskets, the pyramid was completed between 10 and 13 years old in humor, joy, and pleasure. Once the base row of the seating has been completed, workers continue to fill the interior with brown limestone, which is less attractive than the exterior. Inside, at first, every other block was made with formwork molds. The next day they fill in the intervals. Then they sink the 2nd row and then they fill the inside without much care. This is how they will raise the pyramid to the top. Another great proof that the pyramid is made of Geopolymer concrete. It is true that Jean Pierre Adam said that no stone is like another.
Jean Pierre Adam, who is Archaeologist and Egyptologist said on the channel La tronche en Biais:
“Davidovitz who tells us that the pyramids are built with molded artificial stones. Common sense, common sense of a butcher, very good, honorable man, says, ‘if we mold materials like bricks, they will all have the same shape, there will be a single mold for all the stones, well…yes that seems logical, it is common sense’, Thank you, but there are no two stones on the millions of stones of the Great Pyramid which have the same dimension. They are all unique. The row heights hights are respected in the siding and near the siding, but not for the rest. They are all different.”
“So why would we … go to the trouble of making millions of molds to make millions of stones?” question to Jean Pierre Adam.
Although it was so simple to even make raw bricks and standardize the construction of pyramids. To make people believe that’s not the way they did It. It makes it possible to say, this statement is quackery. Common sense tells you it’s so. You don’t have to be an Egyptologist.
The journalist: “You have provided arguments to justify the use of the word charlatan. What is your response?”
But he does not say that all the stones have the same height at each seat. It is unimaginable that hundreds of thousands of stones from the second row, for example, were all cut to the same height, to the nearest cm. No white massive stones were ever brought from Tura. The white limestone from the exterior cladding was extracted from the surrounding area. Davidovits’ analyzes show that the composition of Khufu stones does not contain Tura limestones.”
The following quote was taken from the press conference held at the Palais de la Decouverte Paris, on November 30, 2006, and presented by Barsoum. M.W., Ganguly, A. and Hug, G. Microstructural Evidence of Reconstituted Limestone Blocks in the Great Pyramids of Egypt, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 89
“We compared the compositions of natural limestone samples from the Tura and Maadi quarries with stones from the Pyramid of khufu, and we found a number of anomalies. First observation: the composition of the stones of the pyramids is much more complex than those of the stones from official quarries. Certain micro-constituents of these stones show traces of a rapid chemical reaction which did not allow them to natural crystallization. An inexplicable reaction if the stones were cut, but perfectly understandable if we admit that they were made like concrete … “
This, therefore, confirms the thesis defended for some thirty years by the inventor of geopolymers, the French chemist, also Egyptologist, Joseph Davidovits.
The pyramid site is estimated to be around 7,000 or 8,000 workers. They had to be fed and housed every day. About 100 people were responsible for looking after these workers.
The Greek historian Herodotus described the builders of the pyramids as slaves. This gave birth to a popular myth, perpetuated by Hollywood studio peplums of the 1960s. A construction site where hundreds of thousands of slaves would have worked was unthinkable. It would have required so many Egyptians to oversee them. If some still think it was slaves who built the pyramids, it is because they have not updated. All archaeologists and Egyptologists are categorical. There were no slaves in Egypt.
In January 2010, Zahi Hawass discovered a series of tombs dating from the time of the construction of the pyramids. They are those of the workers buried near their pharaoh.
“They would never have been buried with so much honor if they had been slaves,” he says.
Skeletons have been found in a fetal position, with the head facing west and feet facing east, according to tradition in ancient Egypt. It was the AERA project under the leadership of Dr. Mark Lehner that made it possible to discover The Workers’ Village. It was found 400 meters from the Sphinx. The dwellings could accommodate thousands of men. Archaeologists have found a hundred seals bearing the names of Khafre and Menkaure. The evidence gathered suggests that these men regularly ate meat and worked three-month shifts.
The whole kingdom was involved in the construction of the Pyramid. It was a national project. Workers came from all over the country. They now continue to fill the interior as well as in parallel descending corridor simultaneously with the well shaft. This is the reason why we notice in the underground tunnel a part that is made of masonry stones and a part of the tunnel made of natural limestone with perfect continuity.
They start the ascending corridor. At this stage, 600,000 M3 of limestone concrete has been moved. The classic theory is that 3 granite plugs were stored in the large gallery to be released then and block the entrance. The large gallery is very narrow. If the three granite plugs had been stored somewhere, it would have been a big deal for its construction. There is no trace of friction or scratches on the walls. In addition, the walls are not smooth which does not facilitate sliding. On the other hand, traces of friction were found in the large gallery because of the cart. Blocks that descend as seen in the animations cannot slide in real life. A photo taken in the 50s and 60s totally contradicts the fact that the 3 granite plugs were released from the large gallery.
The 3 granite plugs were poured and stored there, next to the entrance. Yes, you read right. “Poured” Poured granite. The official theory says that the obelisk was carved out of the massif with balls of dolerite but that, due to a defect in the rock, it was abandoned. I would have liked to keep the mystery of granite a secret, but it would be a nail for ufologists and Atlantologists to hang their hat on!!
To understand granite, you have to touch it, you have to try to attack it to immediately feel its power. One feels the fiery depths of the Earth. The magma. Natron mixed with lime gives caustic soda. Caustic soda mixed with water and white sand heated to 1000 ° C produces Sodium Silicate known as liquid glass or water glass. They mix it with potassium silicate obtained by the same process. They pour the liquid into a lens-shaped mold. 2-3 days later they remove the transparent lens from the mold. A lens that concentrates light at a point. The magnifying glass, the larger the lens the higher the temperature. Everyone can make their own sun lens with the recipe. Have fun!
With a 5-meter diameter lens, the temperature reaches 1,800 ° to 2,000 ° Celsius. The Egyptians have just discovered solar energy. Everything is melted, nothing can resist. Granite literally melts at once like lava. The Egyptians poured this lava into clay molds and as an example the famous statue of the 3rd dynasty Huni, the grandfather of Khufu in Aswan granite. Vases are harder than still!
And the Trachyandesite dating from at least 3500BC. Refer to the figures how the granite was extracted and what happened with the unfinished obelisk in Aswan. The workers in the Aswan quarry were responsible for extracting the granite into cobblestone size pieces. These are small pieces of 30 to 40 centimeters which were extracted from the molten granite with stone shovels. Once cooled these pieces were transported by boat to Giza over 900 kilometers away. When they reached to Giza, they melted again and then poured into clay molds.
To estimate the volume of granite to take away, the workers cut this part of the quarry in the shape of an obelisk which will be completely melted 1 week later and transported in cobblestone size pieces. In fact, a ball of Dolerite fell into the lava granite and got stuck there for millennia. Nature doesn’t do that. The granite was melted from May to August. The traces of all the extractions of the granite are tilted. This corresponds to the best trajectory of the sun. During these months, its intensity is strongest.
The geologist of a group of tourists was surprised by the absence of faults, natural fractures of the granite.
“This is natural and it is normal. And that is nothing. There are no faults. How it is possible?
This is normal, because molten granite, when cooled, is like new, out of the ground! The workers melted the granite using the lens. They then begin to cut notches and holes in the granite by playing with the solar ray of the lens. Suddenly the site is abandoned …
This is how the Egyptians melted all kinds of stone: quartz, granite, schist, basalt, diorite, gneiss, grauwacke. No luck. They did not come across ferrous earth, otherwise, they would have discovered steel!
Solar energy was being deployed to the max. Queen Hatshepsut in Karnak writes that her obelisk was completed in 7 months. It’s quite possible with the lens. The Colossi of Memnon weighing 1,800 tons each were made with a mixture of quartz and molten granite.
The Egyptians mined for copper for thousands of years in the mines of Sinai. Copper is a very soft material used to make pans which will be used to make the silicate manufacturing mixture.
Why is there no evidence?
Humanity has waged wars for energy throughout its history. A forest, a field, a coast, a lake, it is potential food, it is energy. Throughout its existence humanity has waged wars for… energy. So one has to imagine that such a discovery had to remain secret. It was passed down discreetly from generation to generation. Solar is the most accessible and cheapest energy today. It is free. Evidence that the granite was cast with solar lenses may be found in the archives of the Vatican, Paris, London, and Cairo Fehmi Krasniqi:
“I pose a different theory from that of Joseph Davisdovits. Egyptian concrete was made in another, simpler way. The clayey limestone was heated with the solar lenses, in silicate of potassium and sodium, at 1300 ° – 1500 ° C. After cooling, it becomes cement, like modern Portland cement. All that remained was to mix it with the limestone in place and water, like concrete. A serious analysis must be done to determine whether this is Geopolymer or cement made with solar lenses. “
To build the pyramid with cement and heat the clay at a temperature of 1200-1500 ° C, they used solar lenses. It took about 300,000 tonnes of sodium carbonate, natron, and 500,000 tonnes of lime to build the pyramid. Solar energy was also used in baking pieces of bread and preparing meals.
Otherwise, thousands of palm tree trunks would have had to be burned to make lime, to fuel bread ovens, and to cook meals for thousands of workers. In 2 years, it would have been total deforestation and civil revolt.
The wood was very valuable because it was scarce, and the few palm forests provided shade for crops as well. Cutting down a palm tree was really the last thing to do!
Without the discovery of solar energy, there would have been no pyramids. Egypt would not have come to where it has come. Thanks to solar energy, the Egyptians preserved nature. At night the spectacle was extraordinary …
The 3 blocks of granite were poured in place and were stored next to the ascending tunnel. They arrive at the end of the corridor. The well shaft was also completed. At this height, 1 million 200 thousand m3 were transported. This is almost half the volume of the pyramid. The entrance to the Pyramid is built with the symbolic V-shaped rafters. They build the horizontal corridor and then they start the middle chamber. At the location of the conduits, they lay a shaft 20cm by 20cm which will shaft to the star of Sirius.
They lay the formwork and pour the blocks of the walls in white limestone. Making a simple cut stone tunnel would be too complicated. On the other hand, it becomes logical with concrete. Cast in formwork, it takes any shape and they can keep the angle with precision. They start the northern shaft and stop a few meters away. The workers build the south pipe and then fill it. They cover the horizontal corridor and the middle chamber. The filling continues to a certain level on the other side to the south.
Now is the time to close the 1st passages. The end passages will be plugged first from top to bottom. The timber for the formwork comes from the ground level. The frame is supported by the beams. The workers fill the formwork with limestone which comes from the ground.
A few moments later they continue with the next stone. This is the method that was used to close the siding throughout the construction. They build the floor of the large gallery in continuity with the ascending corridor. The pyramid continues to fill up and we reach the ground level of the King’s chamber. Then they used the solar lenses to sink the floor of the King’s chamber and the harrows in Aswan red granite. The harrows are provided with the location of the logs. The last block of the floor is in a V shape in order to let the ropes pass for the cart.
The Egyptians had the innovative idea of making the Great Gallery of the corridor in an inclined corbelled arch. The model is taken from the Red pyramid and that of Meïdoum. This time, the gallery inclined and not horizontal. All of this is planned from the start. To achieve the cantilever of the Grand Gallery, they are going to build an extraordinary wooden movable carriage cart. Here is the carriage cart. The trolley is fixed to the floor in the notches in the floor. It is 8 m high, with 7 floors. These 7 floors will be used to complete the formwork on one side.
The exterior side is completed with classic formwork. They start the construction from the bottom up. The cart is in place. They close the formwork on the other side and then pour the limestone into it. They continue in this way for the upper floors. They sink the last block and the ceiling. At the same time, the rest of the team can continue to fill on either side. While the limestone is drying, workers are laying copper notches. This explains once again that it is concrete limestone and not cut stones. Structurally these copper notches do not hold anything, the Egyptians knew that very well.
The bench is not completely dry when the trolley passes, which explains the traces of wood found by Jean Pierre Houdin. He did find some kind of elevator. The cart had a counterweight to lift the stones. According to Houdin cart was going back and forth. In reality, the cart only made one pass from the bottom to the top and it was much taller. Construction of the Grand Gallery is progressing and workers continue to fill it from side to side and on top. Once the part has been built and filled, the workers pull the wooden cart from the top of the plateau and then continue cubit by cubit. The Grand Gallery is almost finished.
The King’s chamber will be built with the dimension of 10 cubits by 20 and 11.18 cubits in height. Some may assume that the simple-minded Egyptians said to themselves: ‘let’s make the King’s bedroom out of 2 simple cubes side by side and that’s it. Nothing special.’
Indeed, it is this little 11.18 cubits that once again makes us discover in a spectacular way the scientific level reached by the Egyptians. The 4 universal constants: PI, Golden Ratio, Royal Number, and Meter are merged in the most perfect and incredible way possible. If we connect the corners of the room with lines, we discover that: The perimeter of the room is 31,416 meters. Let Pi in 10th of a meter. The sum of the 3 sides of this triangle is equal to 52.36 cubits. The Royal constant. This triangle is the sacred triangle of Isis 3 – 4 – 5.
And now forget the units of measurement, the meter, the cubit, the inch, the yard, the mile, etc.… The idea of the Egyptians is to express the number 100 and to build the chamber with 100 stones. They will choose 7 numbers so that the total is 100. They calculate their square roots. Then the golden number Phi squared, multiplied by the square root of 4, 5, 9, 16, 20, 21, 25.
To show us 4,500 years later that these equations are correct, with the results of these equations they will build the chamber, in meters. This shows that the King’s chamber is built directly with the sacred standard, the universal, the centimeter. This is the scientific level of the Egyptians.
“Here is what we know,” they tell us! They did not carve the equations in hieroglyphics but used mathematics to express their knowledge. There, everything is made of unalterable granite so that this message does not move 1 millimeter in time. This message, this scientific feat, will envelop the soul of the ruler of this great civilization, named Khufu.
The Egyptians had the essence of all things. Whether God or the Architect of the Universe built nature and all of its components using a matrix called mathematics. They then applied themselves, in their turn, like Gods. They have integrated math everywhere. Which deeply connected them to Nature. This way of building, based on the universal constants, will be spread everywhere on earth over the millennia. Cathedrals, churches, and various constructions will be made with the cubit, the meter, Pi, and PHI, which we will mystically call “Sacred geometry”. It is for this reason that when you enter a cathedral you feel good and immediately at peace.
Nowhere in the world is a monument or object like the pyramid of Khufu exists. In his 311-page book “The Bedroom of Cheops“, the author expresses his admiration in just 4 sentences.
“It would be pointless to look for traces of improvisation, modifications or imperfections: from floor to ceiling, everything is perfectly done,” says Gilles Dormion.
The small granite cobbles from Aswan will be transported by humans chains. Thus 1,500 tonnes of granite will be assembled in paving stones weighing 30 to 40 kg.
The sarcophagus is built first, then the tunnel openings, the north and south walls, and finally the west and east. The sarcophagus is made of a sliding cover with 3 dowel holes which pushed to the bottom, release the nails, and make the final closure. Khafre adopted the same solution for his sarcophagus. The workers laid the clay formwork and poured the granite lava. They used clay beams for the shaft wall. A few days later, after the walls had cooled, they removed the clay. The construction of the chamber would have taken 3-4 months.
Cutting granite to achieve such walls at that time was just inconceivable. However, it is possible with molten granite. The walls of the King’s chambers are finished. Both conduits target the star of Sirius and Alnilam. The middle chamber shafts will point Sirius at 39 ° 49 minutes on December 4 at midnight 0:00 to 180 °. Alnilam is at the heart of the constellation Orion. The King’s Conduit will target Alnilam on November 11 at midnight 0:00 to 180 ° as well.
Note the breathtaking precision of the sky measurements knowing that the stars are moving. If this is all chance, then all the science we know today is in the trash. The celestial hemisphere was cut out at 360 °. The sky is in constant motion and never looks like the next or the previous era.
To immortalize this era, the date of the reign and that of the death of the King, the date of the construction of the Pyramid, and the memory of all those who worked there, they used the configuration of the sky of that year. This gives us precisely the date of the construction of the Great Pyramid between minus 2560 and less 2550 BC.
50 years later or earlier the ducts would never be aligned again. This means that they had a deep knowledge of Astronomy. The Egyptians knew the time, hours, and the weather. They had discovered the clock. The day was divided into 24 hours, and 1 hour into 60 minutes. We call the clepsydra, a very enigmatic name that is nothing other than the watch. A clock using water. In fact, the water clock was used until the 1800s. Another discovery with water.
The vase was graduated by levels. Water was flowing from a hole and indicating the time precisely. The workers continue the construction of the southern shaft of the King’s chamber and cover it. They fill up around the King’s bedroom and the South shaft, then they go on to the anteroom and the harrows. The northern tunnel of the King’s chamber makes a detour, then construction will stop at the gallery level. The ceiling beams are cast in turn.
Cracks can be observed in the granite beams today. According to Jean Pierre Houdin and Dassault System, the accident happened when the whole pyramid was finished, which is why a tunnel had to be opened to check the damage. Except that once the limestone hardened it was impossible to dig the tunnel. The beams were cracked because the granite had not cooled sufficiently or possibly due to improper handling of the formwork during cooling. We notice the traces of the wooden beams of the scaffolding which hold the concrete formwork mold. Due to the pressure exerted by the beam and the weight of the granite, the lava undergoes a chemical reaction that leaves traces of burns. Some beams crack.
The workers left a passage through the upper floors to observe the beams. However, they couldn’t fix anything. Neither 3cm nor 300cm offset can cause granite with a resistance of 120-200 Mega Pascal granite to crack due to the weight. If weight was the cause of the crack, it would be in the middle of the ceiling beams, not the ends.
The three faces of the beams are straight, only the upper side is irregular. The 4th surface is very smooth. This proves that there was a formwork mold for the beams and that the granite was poured in molten lava form. Not for a single beam but for all beams!
They move equipment, lenses, and granite to the upper floor. The 5 granite floors have been completed. The limestone vault is built. Egyptologists falsely call these architectural features “weight-relieving chambers“
If there had been a weight problem, the Egyptians would have made weight-relieving chambers for the underground chamber as well. The public has no training in engineering and architecture, and some allow themselves to give baseless explanations. A worker writes the name of Khufu quickly. Sitchnin accuses Howard Vyse of having falsified the handwriting of Khufu’s name, but he is the forger. The name of Khufu is correctly written.
The whole pyramid will be filled except at the location of the two North tunnels. The Grand Gallery is hampering the construction of the northern shafts and their routes deviated by a few meters. Once the precise height of 67 meters is reached, the outlets of the tunnels of the middle chamber are aligned and they build the tunnel from top to bottom. Once the tunnel reaches the other end, they fill up to continue to the upper tunnel.
At the precise height of 80 meters, the exits of the two tunnels of the King’s chamber are also aligned and they build the last shafts, also from top to bottom. At the far end of the tunnel joins the other end. This is the only solution to have 4 parallel tunnels with impressive precision. The interior is built. From now on they will fill in.
This operation required a precise and careful reading of the height as the pyramid was raised. This demand for precision from the architect was planned 18 years prior, it would have been an improbable plan if cut stones had been used. This explains the offsets and turns of the northern tunnels.
In 2017 the Scan Pyramid project announced the discovery of a large cavity which could be a large secret chamber. This hypothetical cavity is located at the location of the North Tunnels. Indeed, there was a huge cavity that was used to build the North tunnels but it was filled in. It is not a secret chamber but a difference in the density of the limestone. This is the end of the construction of the shafts. The tunnels will remain open until the King’s death.
The pyramid continues to rise. They always pour the siding and then fill the interior. They have been using the same formwork for 10 years already. The Egyptians took good care of their tools.
The passages close one by one as the pyramid goes up. At 140 meters high, the East and West teams stop the advance and begin the descent. They place the apothem facing on the way down. Only the South and North teams continue until the end.
The architect Hemiounou and Khufu symbolically go up to unveil the Pyramidion. The pyramidion is out. The crowd roars with joy. Twenty years of hard work for their King are coming to an end!
The workers will pour the facing down to the height of the tunnels. The construction of the pyramid stops there, until the death of the King.
There is evidence that this is the method used to build the pyramids via corridors used, refer to the figures. On the 4 sides of the pyramid of Khufu, there is depression. This is not due to the covering of the apothem, but to the large passages in the middle. On the facing of the Meidum pyramid, we also see a sort of subsidence. Proof that the facing is installed at different stages. There is also see the same type of passage on the Red Pyramid, yet this one is not built as an apothem. A surrounding wall is built ten meters around the pyramid.
The walls around the pyramid of Khafre were built in the same way. You can see the location of the beams that held the workers’ scaffolding. This is the reason why tourist access to this place is closed. The forms were laid and then the concrete was poured.
The ditches have been dug and arranged all around to store the solar boats. The workers are also building the King’s temple. His remains will come down from the harbor. It is from this port and this monumental road that the people will come on pilgrimage to worship their temple and their pyramid. It was a sort of avenue like there are in all cities today. This causeway is aligned with the stars Betelgeuse – Alnilam, and Rigel in the southwest. 14 ° always at midnight at 0:00.
Giza becomes a sacred place and quickly at the same time, the Egyptians will build the 3 small pyramids in front of him. Mastabas for priests, workers, and foremen. It was a great honor to have his tomb next to that of the King. The pyramid was oriented east, with respect to the Sun, their great God Re. Orientation East automatically indicates North, South, and West with equal precision. Indeed, the Egyptians did not care about the North. There was nothing in the North apart from the primitive peoples.
The South was sacred to them because that was where they came from, where their roots were. It is for this reason that the cities were then be built by going up the Nile in order to get closer to their origins. There is a lot of debate that pyramids are not tombs and that sarcophagi are not intended for placing remains. Many of the sarcophagi were empty at the time of their discovery. Almost all of the mummies, whether important figures in society or not, have been found in wooden coffins and not in granite sarcophagi.
In Egypt, the most important god was the god Re, the sun. Logical, since there is no life without the sun. The Egyptians considered that every human had a little sun in them. Each had his Re. They observed nature, life, death, and its cycle. The lifeless body was like an inert stone and as it decayed and returned to nature. The soul, the Re, stayed, and traveled. This rule was no exception for Kings. The body returned to earth and the soul to heaven.
Thus the Egyptians saw in statutes and temples, the king’s spirit which traveled across time, the body were buried elsewhere, the spirit was immortalized in statues and pyramids. What do our loved ones leave us when they leave us?
Some leave the house, other leave books, still others painting or signature visible in buildings. Khufu left eternity, a pyramid that brings together all knowledge, including that of the Egyptians. Soulless flesh is inert and must return to nature, spirit and memory continue.
The pyramid was a path for the King’s soul to go into the heavens and the afterlife. The larger the pyramid, the more the King could go far and find his deserved place. It was for this reason that the tunnels had to be perfectly aligned with the stars. It was not a whim of the King but a belief. The meaning of this internal architecture is the Djed, the resurrection. Order, peace, Djed, and Nun have shaped the human race and the universe. All the pyramids are built west of the Nile. Another proof of these Egyptian religious beliefs.
The pyramid is indeed a cenotaph for the soul, a spiritual monument where the meter, the royal constant, the pi, the golden ratio, chemistry, time, mathematics, astronomy are inscribed. A memory for generations to come. The King is dead, a great ceremony will take place in front of all the people. The King’s body arrives from the port. He is mummified in the temple.
The body of the King is lowered into the underground chamber to symbolize procreation in the womb. Then there is birth. It comes out of the darkness and comes into the light of day, symbolized by reaching ground level. He grows up and becomes King. He reigned with justice and righteousness. Throughout his life, he was led by Sirius. The King is beginning to age, the large gallery symbolizes his work, the country he ruled during his lifetime. The return path symbolizes old age and wisdom. This is the last way. A kind of passion of Christ. A ceremony led by the priests accompanies the rite.
The priests pull the remains with ropes for its ultimate ascent from the granite harrows. Granite, sacred symbolism. The King’s remains arrive at his final resting place, where his soul will depart for eternity. The body will remain there until Ré arrives. July 14th. His body was laid in the sarcophagus and his boat was buried in front of his pyramid. While waiting for Re, in order to fight the darkness, the King’s soul came out at night through the conduit, so his soul could navigate the heavens, then returned before sunrise to rest.
The underground chamber and the middle chamber are perfectly centered on the axis of the pyramid, except that of the king. This is the first thing that strikes you to look at a cross-section of the pyramid. an anomaly? an imperfection?
It corresponds to a specific retual. The position of the sun is exactly facing the king’s sarcophagus. The king is waiting for the Re in his chamber. On July 14th, Re comes to seek the soul of the king. They leave together for eternity.
The body is soulless. The remains will be buried in a secret place. The pyramid can now be closed. This pyramid and its symbolism will remain closed for eternity in its privacy. When leaving with the remains, the workers close the room with the granite blocks provided for this purpose.
The workers will leave a ball of dolerite and a copper hook as a souvenir in the middle chamber and then fill in the holes. They move the 3 granite plugs to close the entrance and fill up the location. They take the outlet of the service hose that was built 15 years ago. They close the entrance to the hose when leaving. They descend to the level of the cave and place the block of granite behind them. They go down to the basement and they close the underground chamber with another block of granite. They climb to the surface. Outside, they lay the siding in their path and seal the entrance. So the pyramid is closed.
By blocking the entrances with granite stones, the Egyptians thought that the pyramid would be inviolable. They had not imagined that centuries later man would discover iron, dynamite, explosives.
Is this, or isn’t it Khufu Cenotaph?
We can have a definitive answer: In 1970 a project to explore the conduits of the pyramid with robots was born. The Djedi project. In the southern shaft of the Meddle chamber, the robot discovers traces of red drawing which date from the day of construction. Just to take samples of the (refer to the figure) painting and compare its chemical composition with the hieroglyphics found in the cavities of the King’s chamber. It could be the same hand.